Thursday, 28 May 2020

Every person with an 'O' blood group should check whether your blood group is Bombay Blood Group(Hh) or not

bombay blood groupThe Bombay Blood Group is a very rare blood group. It was first identified in Bombay (now Mumbai). This is why it was named the Bombay Group. 4 out of every 10 million people are Bombay group. The group is found mostly in Mumbai, India. Your relatives or friends may be in this group. By reading this article, you can understand everything about Bombay Blood Group.

What is Bombay Blood Group 

To get a clear understanding of the Bombay group, you need to know what is the blood group system, what is the ABO Rh grouping system and what are the antigen and antibodies. So let me explain it below.

Blood Grouping System 

Many grouping systems such as ABO, Rh, Lewis (Le), P, MNSs, KELL (K), Duffy (Fy) Kidd (Jk), and Lutheran (Lu) have been discovered. But the ABO and the RH grouping system is a risky grouping system if there is a mismatch in blood transfusions. This is why the ABO and Rh grouping system is checked when donating and accepting blood.

But even when ABO and Rh are matched, transfusion reactions can sometimes occur. Then the other grouping system is checked to find out the reason for the transfusion reactions.

ABO and Rh Blood Grouping system

ABO and Rh are the most important blood grouping system. The ABO grouping system includes  A, B, O, and AB groups. The Rh grouping system includes positive Rh and negative Rh.
Example: 'A' Positive. 
Where A denotes the group A in the ABO grouping system and Positive refers to the positive group in the Rh grouping system.

Blood Grouping Antigens 

The blood grouping antigen is located on the surface of RBC. more than one million antigens are present in an RBC. But not all antigens have been identified. Each of the identified ones is given a name like A, B, O, C, D,d, E,e. etc.
 Blood grouping antigen is a lipoprotein
Those with 'A' antigen are known as 'A' group, those with 'B' antigen are called 'B' group, those with 'A' and 'B' antigens are called 'AB' group, those with the absence of 'A' and 'B'  antigen are called 'O' group.
The H antigen is an antigen common in all groups except the Bombay group.

Blood Group Antibody

An antibody is a Y shaped protein, also known as immunoglobulin. When an antigen (bacteria, virus, or other infectious particles) enters the body from outside, the antibody, which corresponds to it, protects the body by destroying them. 

We know that the blood group is the antigens present on the surface of the RBC in our blood. Antibodies present in the plasma of the blood, which are against blood group antigens that are not present in their RBC.

As such, If transfuse any blood group other than the compatible blood group will be destroyed by antibodies that are already present in the plasma.

  • If the blood group is 'A' antibody will be 'B'.
  • If the blood group is 'B' antibody will be 'A'.
  • If the blood group is 'AB' then there will be no 'A' antibody and 'B' antibody.
  • In the case of the 'O' group, both 'A' and 'B' antibodies will be there.
  • 'H' antibody will be  only in the Bombay group

Antigen-Antibody Reactions

when antigens and antibodies combine RBC will become clumps. This type of antigen-antibody reaction is called agglutination. this agglutination is used to identify blood groups for blood transfusion.

Bombay Blood Group

All the blood groups contain 'H' antigen, while the lack of 'H' antigen is seen in some 'O' groups. Such groups are called the Bombay group. It is denoted as 'O h'.

Who Discovered Bombay Blood Group

The first Bombay group was discovered in 1952 by scientist YM Bhende at KE M Hospital in Mumbai. The Bombay blood group was first discovered in the blood of a railway worker. Since then, he has studied this particular group and collected over 150 samples and determined the Bombay Group.

Bombay Group was first discovered in Bombay (today Mumbai). This is why this phenotype was named as Bombay Group. The largest number of people with Bombay Blood group is  located in also Mumbai

How to detect Bombay Blood Group in Laboratory

Once the blood group test gets the 'O' group it has to conform to not the Bombay group. It is done by adding one drop of Anti H serum in a drop of blood. After proper mixing, if agglutination is present, then we can confirm it is an 'O' group. If there is no agglutination, it is Bombay Blood Group ('Oh'). The 'O' blood group, which lack of 'H' antigen, is called a Bombay group.

Bombay Blood Group Donors

If a person with a Bombay blood group needs blood, He can only accept the Bombay blood group. otherwise, it may cause acute hemolysis and cause death. Bombay Blood Group blood cannot be stored in  Blood Bank like other groups, it will be discarded within 45 days. Because it is a rare group, so collected when needed. Bombay blood group is not too difficult to obtain if needed. Most of the donors are ready to donate blood anywhere in the world.

There are many social media groups for the Bombay Blood Group today. so easy to spot donors.

No comments:

Post a comment